Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis. Solar Power as an Energy Source - Reza Razeghifard

Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis. Solar Power as an Energy Source - Reza Razeghifard

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Produktinformationen

Details
EAN / ISBN-139781118160060
Höhe23.3 cm
AutorReza Razeghifard
ProduktformGebundene Ausgabe
Seitenanzahl488
HerausgeberJohn Wiley & Sons
Erscheinungsdatum 2013
InhaltsverzeichnisPreface xv Contributors xix Acronyms xxiii 1 Physics Overview of Solar Energy 1 Diego Castano 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Sun 2 1.3 Light 3 1.4 Thermodynamics 6 1.5 Photovoltaics 9 1.6 Photosynthesis 11 References 12 2 Oxygenic Photosynthesis 13 Dmitriy Shevela, Lars Olof Bj¨orn, and Govindjee 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 Path of Energy: From Photons to Charge Separation 16 2.3 Electron Transfer Pathways 22 2.4 Photophosphorylation 30 2.5 Carbon Dioxide to Organic Compounds 33 2.6 Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis 37 2.7 Some Interesting Questions about Whole Plants 42 2.8 Perspectives for the Future 48 2.9 Summary 48 Acknowledgments 49 References 49 3 Apparatus and Mechanism of Photosynthetic Water Splitting as Nature's Blueprint for Efficient Solar Energy Exploitation 65 Gernot Renger 3.1 Introduction 65 3.2 Overall Reaction Pattern of Photosynthesis and Respiration 67 3.3 Bioenergetic Limit of Solar Energy Exploitation: Water Splitting 68 3.4 Humankind's Dream of Using Water and Solar Radiation as "Clean Fuel" 69 3.5 Nature's Blueprint of Light-Induced Water Splitting 71 3.6 Types of Approaches in Performing Light-Driven H2 and O2 Formation from Water 71 3.7 Light-Induced "Stable" Charge Separation 78 3.8 Energetics of Light-Induced Charge Separation 80 3.9 Oxidative Water Splitting: The Kok Cycle 82 3.10 YZ Oxidation by P680+* 83 3.11 Structure and Function of the WOC 86 3.12 Concluding Remarks 102 Acknowledgments 102 References 103 4 Artificial Photosynthesis 121 Reza Razeghifard 4.1 Introduction 121 4.2 Organic Pigment Assemblies on Electrodes 122 4.3 Photosystem Assemblies on Electrodes 124 4.4 Hydrogen Production by Photosystem I Hybrid Systems 127 4.5 Mimicking Water Oxidation with Manganese Complexes 128 4.6 Protein Design for Introducing Manganese Chemistry in Proteins 130 4.7 Protein Design and Photoactive Proteins with Chl Derivatives 131 4.8 Conclusion 133 Acknowledgment 133 References 134 5 Artificial Photosynthesis: Ruthenium Complexes 143 Dimitrios G. Giarikos 5.1 Ruthenium(II) 143 5.2 Ligand Influence on the Photochemistry of Ru(II) 145 5.3 Importance of Polypyridyl Ligands and Metal Ion for Tuning of MLCT Transitions 149 5.4 Electron Transfer of Ru(II) Complexes 150 5.5 Light-Harvesting Complexes Using Ru(II) Complexes 151 5.6 Ru(II) Artificial Photosystem Models for Photosystem II 157 5.7 Ru (II) Artificial Photosystem Models for Hydrogenase 161 5.8 Conclusion 166 References 166 6 CO2 Sequestration and Hydrogen Production Using Cyanobacteria and Green Algae 173 Kanhaiya Kumar and Debabrata Das 6.1 Introduction 173 6.2 Microbiology 174 6.3 Biochemistry of CO2 Fixation 176 6.4 Parameters Affecting the CO2 Sequestration Process 180 6.5 Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria 183 6.6 Mechanisms of H2 Production in Green Algae 194 6.7 Photobioreactors 202 6.8 Conclusion 206 Acknowledgments 206 References 206 7 Cyanobacterial Biofuel and Chemical Production for CO2 Sequestration 217 John W. K. Oliver and Shota Atsumi 7.1 Carbon Sequestration by Biomass 217 7.2 Introduction to Cyanobacteria 219 7.3 CO2 Uptake Efficiency of Cyanobacteria 219 7.4 Mitigation of Costs Through Captured-Carbon Products 221 7.5 Captured-Carbon Products from Engineered Cyanobacteria 222 7.6 Conclusion 227 References 227 8 Hydrogen Production by Microalgae 231 Helena M. Amaro, M. Gl´oria Esqu´?vel, Teresa S. Pinto, and F. Xavier Malcata 8.1 Introduction 231 8.2 Hydrogenase Engineering 233 8.3 Metabolic Reprograming 233 8.4 Light Capture Improvement 236 Acknowledgments 238 References 238 9 Algal Biofuels 243 Archana Tiwari and Anjana Pandey 9.1 Introduction 243 9.2 Advantages of Algae 243 9.3 Algal Strains and Biofuel Production 246 9.4 Algal Biofuels 247 9.5 Algal Cultivation for Biofuel Production 252 9.6 Photobioreactors Employed for Algal Biofuels 254 9.7 Recent Achievements in Algal Biofuels 255 9.8 Strategies for Enhancement of Algal Biofuel Production 258 9.9 Conclusion 261 References 261 10 Green Hydrogen: Algal Biohydrogen Production 267 Ela Eroglu, Matthew Timmins, and Steven M. Smith 10.1 Introduction 267 10.2 Hydrogen Production by Algae 267 10.3 Hydrogenase Enzyme 269 10.4 Diversity of Hydrogen-Producing Algae 270 10.5 Model Microalgae for H2 Production Studies: Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii 272 10.6 Approaches for Enhancing Hydrogen Production 273 10.7 Conclusion 279 References 279 11 Growth in Photobioreactors 285 Niels Thomas Eriksen 11.1 Introduction 285 11.2 Design of Photobioreactors 286 11.3 Limitations to Productivity of Microalgal Cultures 287 11.4 Actual Productivities of Microalgal Cultures 290 11.5 Distribution of Light in Photobioreactors 292 11.6 Gas Exchange in Photobioreactors 294 11.7 Shear Stress in Photobioreactors 297 11.8 Current Trends in Photobioreactor Development 298 Acknowledgment 299 References 299 12 Industrial Cultivation Systems for Intensive Production of Microalgae 307 Giuseppe Olivieri, Piero Salatino, and Antonio Marzocchella 12.1 Introduction 307 12.2 Relevant Issues for Design and Operation of Systems for Microalgal Cultures 308 12.3 Open Systems 318 12.4 Closed Systems: Photobioreactors 321 12.5 Novel Photobioreactor Configurations 326 12.6 Case Study: Intensive Production of Bio-Oil 333 Acknowledgments 337 References 337 13 Microalgae Biodiesel and Macroalgae Bioethanol: The Solar Conversion Challenge for Industrial Renewable Fuels 345 Navid R. Moheimani, Mark P. McHenry, and Pouria Mehrani 13.1 Introduction 345 13.2 Biofuel Supply, Demand, Production, and New Feedstocks 346 13.3 Feasibility of Photosynthetic Fuel Production 348 13.4 Biodiesel Production and Feedstocks 349 13.5 Macroalgae Biofuel Feedstocks and Production 352 13.6 Conclusion 354 References 355 14 Technoeconomic Assessment of Large-Scale Production of Bioethanol from Microalgal Biomass 361 Razif Harun, Hassan J, Li J. S. Shu, Lucy A. Arthur, and Michael K. Danquah 14.1 Introduction 361 14.2 Technology Selection and Process Design 362 14.3 Economic Analysis 375 14.4 Reduction of Overall Production Cost 383 14.5 Conclusion 384 References 385 15 Microalgae-Derived Chemicals: Opportunity for an Integrated Chemical Plant 387 Azadeh Kermanshahi-pour, Julie B. Zimmerman, and Paul T. Anastas 15.1 Introduction 387 15.2 Microalgae Cultivation Systems 388 15.3 Lipids 392 15.4 Carbohydrates 408 15.5 Protein 410 15.6 Process Integration 413 15.7 Conclusion 420 References 422 16 Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass 435 Ian M. O'Hara, Zhanying Zhang, Philip A. Hobson, Mark D. Harrison, Sagadevan G. Mundree, and William O. S. Doherty 16.1 Introduction 435 16.2 The Nature of Lignocellulosic Biomass 436 16.3 Feedstocks for Biomass Processing 439 16.4 Production of Fermentable Sugars from Biomass 441 16.5 Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals 445 16.6 Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass 449 16.7 Conclusion 449 References 450 Index 457
HauptbeschreibungThis technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day. Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds. Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions. Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds. Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air. Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy.
Breite16.2 cm
SpracheEnglisch

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